Electrical Power Transformer | Definition and Types of Transformer


electrical transformer


Basic Definition of Transformer


Electrical Transformer is the Static electrical device. Electrical transformer is the static device which is used for the transforming the power from one electrical circuit to another electrical circuit without any change in the supply frequency. This is very basic and simple definition of the Electrical transformer.


Since in the electrical Transformer no any kind of rotating part so Transformer is the static device. Transformer is operate only on the AC supply. Transformer is not operate on DC supply because Transformer operate on the only on the principle of mutual induction.

electrical transformer


History of Transformer


 If we want to know History of transformer then you have to go back in the 1880s.You know that transformer is working on the principle of the mutual induction. These mutual induction principle was discover in the 1830.After then Time are passing and Transformer design was improved and also in resulting we get some more its efficiency and lesser size.

Now according to the requirement Day by day large capacity of transformer In Range of the several KVA and MVA are also became available.

Now then time are going and then in the 1950 , 400KV  electrical power transformer is also became the available.

After then in 1970 and 1980 some Of High class transformer of  1100 MVA  800 KV Rating also available.

Now Present time electrical power requirement is now very high soo large Rating large Size of Electrical transformer is also available.


Main important Application of transformer is that changing the voltage level. If generation of electrical power is as Low voltage level then these low voltage of power is transmitted to the load side. if transmitted Voltage is low then Transmission line current is became the soo much high value. then power loss of the transmission line are became the quote high.

So if transmission  line voltage is increasing by the step up transformer then line current value is became the low and according to the Ohmic loss formula I2R power loss of transmission is line is also became the low.

And also reduction in the Cross sectional area of the conductor. And then reduction in the Capital cost of the system An also improved the voltage regulation of the transmission line.

So low level of the power is improved by the step up transformer on the sending end of the transmission line.

But at the receiving side of the transmission line has need some low level of voltage so this is done by the help of the step down transformer.

Actually transformer are 2 types
1.Two winding ordinary transformer
2.Auto transformer


Transformer voltage Ratio or Turn Ration are define as below..

Transformer V.R = V2/V1  = N2/N1 = I1/I2 = K


Which transformer is used in the system is depend on the Its value of the transformer ratio..

two winding transformer is used in the system when the transformer V.R is greater than 2.When its transformer V.R is lesser than 2 then Auto transformer is used in the system.

Use of auto transformer in the system is more economical than two winding transformer.

If we compare Single unit of 3-Phase transformer with 3 single unit of 1-phase transformer then Single unit of 3 phase transformer is more efficient than Bank of three single phase transformers unit in the three phase system.

But transportation for the single three phase transformer unit has bit difficult.




These all the types of transformer is based on the purpose, use, construction etc.


1. Step Up Transformer and Step Down Transformer this transformer is used generally in the step up and step down of voltage level of power in transmission and distribution of power network.

2. Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer Generally in the power system 3 phase transformer is used as effective than other. but due to problem in transportation sometimes according to requirement 1 phase transformer is also used.

3. Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer Electrical power transformer is generally used for the transmission line for the stepping up and down of the voltage level. It used only on full load and it has maximum efficiency at near to full load. Distribution transformer is used at the distributor side for the step down the voltage level for the purpose of the domestic or commercial users. is used 24 Hours and it has maximum efficiency at the 50% of the full load.

4. Instrument TransformerIn instrument transformer include Both current transformer (C.T) and Potential transformer (P.T) Are both used for the measurement purpose.

5. Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer two winding transformer is used when its transformation ratio is more than 2 otherwise auto transformer is used. Auto transformer is more economical because its has only one winding which act as both primary and secondary.
6. Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer transformer which is designed for the outdoor is called as the outdoor transformer and transformer which is designed for indoor is called as the indoor transformer.

7. Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer In the oil cooled transformer has oil has the cooling medium and in Dry type transformer Air is used as the cooling medium.

8. Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer

Core Type transformer : In the core type of the transformer has two vertical limbs and two horizontal sections called as yoke provided. It has Rectangular shape core with common magnetic circuits. It has two cylindrical HV and LV coils which is provided on the two limbs.

electrical transformer


Shell Type Transformer : In Shell type of the transformer it has central inner limb and two outer limbs.Here both HV and LV winding are place on the central inner limb.It has double magnetic circuit.

electrical transformer



Berry Type Transformer : This is different type of the transformer which is look like spokes of wheels.in the this type of transformer oil are filled in the inside of the tank and tightly fitted metal sheet tank is used for it.

Also some other type of transformer is also available which is based on the type of the winding is used inside the transformer core and Rating of the transformer , size and location of the transformer etc..


I hope you can properly understand what is the detail basic things of the Electrical Power Transformer | Definition and Types of Transformer. if you have further dough than ask without any hesitation.

More detail On click here : electrical transformer wikipedia

for more detail see below video..


                Source : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vh_aCAHThTQ

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